Additive

Action

Effect

Safety Rating

Artificial Colors

Man-made dyes. Impact colors to foods to offset color losses, correct natural variations in color, enhance naturally occurring colors and prevent bacterial growth (especially in wine)

Some animal studies suggest they create a small risk of cancer or tumors; Possible link with hyperactivity and learning disabilities in some sensitive children.

Strike: Mild allergic reaction (itching or hives) possible in those sensitive to Yellow No. 5; Red No. 3 may be banned due to health concerns derived from animal studies.

Aspartame

Artificial sweetener, low-calorie sugar substitute (Equal and NutraSweet). Made by combining aspartic acid and phenylalanine, amino acids that occur naturally in protein-containing foods.

Digested and absorved like any other protein.

Left Field: Anecdotal reports of dizziness, headaches and behavior changes are unconfirmed in controlled studies. People with the rare disease phnylketonuria must avoid.

BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole).
BHT(butylated hydroxytoluene).

Preservatives, antioxidant. Added to fats, oils and foods that contain oil (baked goods and snacks) to prevent rancidity.

Prevent the oxidation of dietary fats and oils. Low doses in food may help prevent stomach cancer by mopping up reactive molecules taht can damage tissues.

Left field: Most studies indicate they're safe; carcinogenic in some animal studies using high doses.

GUMS (alginate, arabic, carrageenan, ghatti, guar, karaya, locust bean, tragacanth, xanthan)

Stabilizers, thickening agents. Replace fat in low-fat foods; modify texture.

Recognized by the body as mixtures of digestible sugars.

Safe: Derived from natural sources (plant fluids, seeds, seaweed and bacteria)

MSG (monosodium glutamate)

Used to flavor foods, especially various types of meats.

Emphasizes natural flavors in certain foods. Glutamate is a salt in protein-containing foods. Also produced by the body for metabolism and brain function. The body can't distinguish between glutamate in food and glutamate in MSG.

Left Field: May precipitate reactions in sensitive individuals; headache, nausea, weakness, difficulty breathing, and burning sensations in the back of the neck and forearms.

OLESTRA(Olean)

Fat substitute. A synthetic fat that adds no fat or calories to foods.

Made from everyday ingredients (vegetable oil and table sugar), but the molecules are too large to be digested or absorbed by the body.

Left field: Reduced absorption of heart healthy and cancer-fighting, fat-soluble carotenoids from fruits and vegetables. Can cause a laxative effect, gas, abdominal cramps and diarrhea.

Sodium Nitrates

Coloring, flavoring, preservative. Stabilize red color, and enhance flavor of cured meats; help prevent the growth of bacteria that causes botulism.

In the acidic environment of the stomach, as well as during intensive heating (frying bacon to crisp stage), nitrites can be converted into potentially cancer-causing compounds (nitrosamines).

Left field: Higher levels than used in food found to be carcinogenic in animals; ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is routinely added to cured meats to inhibit formation of nitrosamines.

Sterol Esters

Added to margarine to promote healthy blood-cholesterol levels.

Extracted from wood pulp or soybean oil extracts. Not absorved by the body. Inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestine.

Safe: under the intended conditions of use. Studies used three pats of margarine per day. Approved for use in 1999.

Sucralose

Artificial sweetener. Only low-calorie sweetener made from sugar. Adds no calories when used to sweeten foods and beverages. Can be used virtually like sugar, including in baked goods.

Not recognized by the body as sugar, sucralose molecules pass through the body unchanged and are eliminated.

Safe: Approved for use in the United States in 1998.

Sulfites

Preservative. Prevent discoloration (in dried apricots, raisins and other dried fruit, and some dried, fried or frozen potatoes); control "black spot" in fresh shrimp and lobster.

Destroy any of the vitamin thiamin (vitamin B1) present in food.

Left field: Can cause reactions such as hives and breathing difficulty. Those with asthma and aspirin allergies should avoid due to risk of anaphylatic shock, indicated by swelling of airways.