Biotin; 30 mcg/day.
Helps metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Found in brewer's yeast, cooked egg yolks, meat, milk, poultry, and soybeans.
Chromium; 50-200 mcg/day.
May help regulate glucose levels.
People with hypoglycemia should exercise caution if taking chromium. People with diabetes should consult their health care practitioners before taking.
Magnesium; 310-320 mg/day for women; 400-420 mg/day for men.
People with diabetes who are deficient in magnesium may be at higher risk for heart disease.
Supplement should be taken with food to prevent diarrhea.
Omega-3 fatty acids (in fish oil); 3-5 grams/day of combined EPA and DHA.
May improve glucose tolerance; improves blood circulation.
Also lowers blood pressure and cholesterol, two risk factors for diabetes.
Vitamin C; 75 mg/day for women; 90 mg/day for men.
A potent antioxidant that improves blood sugar levels and lipid levels.
More than 1,000 mg daily may cause kidney stones or diarrhea in some people.
Vitamin E (natural d-alpha tocopherol); 200-400 IU/day.
Another strong antioxidant, it may help prevent kidney and eye damage.
Avoid synthetic vitamin E, which is less potent.
Note: Larger doses may be necessary for disease management and prevention. Check with your health care practitioner for individualized recommendations.
Sources: Jaime S. Ruud, RD, research analyst in the department of nutritional science and dietetics at the University of Nebraska and author of Nutrition and the Female Athlete (CRC Press, 1996); PDR for Nutritional Supplements (Medical Economics Co., 2001).