• Alcohol use
  • Cancer radiation therapy or chemotherapy
  • Corticosteroid use
  • Excessive simple sugar consumption
  • Excessive stress
  • Fasting
  • Food allergens
  • Gastrointestinal infections
  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Premature birth
  • Whole food exposure prior to 4­6 months of age