Since 2001, scientists have known the antioxidant effects of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and zinc could prevent worsening of existing, moderate AMD. Newer studies show vitamin A lowers the risk of developing more severe AMD, and vitamin E could prevent cataracts and glaucoma. “There are risks associated with high doses of vitamins A and E and zinc,” Adams cautions, and beta-carotene can compete with lutein for absorption, so check with your doctor before taking any of them.

Dose: 10–15 mg beta-carotene daily; 500–800 mg vitamin C daily, divided throughout the day; 150–200 IU vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol form); and 20–30 mg zinc daily along with 2–3 mg copper daily (because zinc can block copper absorption)