Many migraine sufferers find that eliminating certain foods can reduce attacks. Start by avoiding the most common allergy-provoking foods—cow's milk, eggs, chocolate, citrus fruits, and wheat—for several weeks and then add them back one by one to see if any of these foods trigger your migraines.

Compounds such as tyramine (a substance found in red wine, aged cheese, and liver), nitrites, monosodium glutamate (MSG), sulfites, tartrazine (FD&C yellow No. 5), and aspartame can also set off migraines in some people. It can help to keep a headache diary—in which you record all the foods you eat and the times you suffer a migraine attack—to track down possible food connections. Be aware that symptoms may appear as many as three days after consuming one of these trigger foods, so it can be tricky to finger your headache culprit.